2.6 Hormonal Coordination in the Body


2.6 Hormonal Coordination in the Body
1. Hormones are the chemical substances produced by the ductless glands called endocrine glands.
2. Hormones are produced in a small quantity and are carried by the blood circulation system to all parts of the body.

2.6.1 Human Endocrine System
1. The endocrine system is made up of endocrine glands, which are ductless glands that secrete hormone directly into the bloodstream.

                        Human endocrine system and the location of endocrine glands



Endocrine glands
Hormones
Function of hormone
Pituitary gland
  names of hormones not required
  Master gland that controls and regulates the secretion of hormones by other endocrine glands.
   Controls the growth of body.
   Controls the reabsorption of water.
   Controls other endocrine glands like ovary and testes.

Thyroid gland
  Thyroxine
(contains iodine)
  Main source of iodine is seafood.
   Controls metabolic rate.
   Controls the physical and mental growth
Pancreas
 Insulin
   Glucagon
Controls sugar level in the blood by:
  Insulin converts excess glucose into glycogen.
   Glucagon changes glycogen into glucose.

Adrenal glands
   Adrenaline
(secreted during situations of emergencies, under stress, fear or anxiety)
    Increase heartbeat.
    Increase metabolic rate.
    Increase breathing rate.
    Converts glycogen into glucose.

Testes
(produces
the male sex hormones)
   Testosterone

  Controls the development of male secondary characteristics such as deepening of voice armpit hair and moustache.
  Production of sperms.

Ovaries
(produces
the female sex hormones)
   Oestrogen
 Progesterone
  Controls the development of female secondary characteristics such as development of breast and enlargement of pelvis.
  Controls the menstrual cycle and ovulation.
   Stimulates development of milk glands during pregnancy.



Effects of Hormonal Imbalance on Health
Hormones
Effect of excessive hormone
Effect of deficiency of hormone
Growth hormone
   gigantism
  dwarfism

Thyroxine


  Increase metabolic rate
  Increase heartbeat
  Increase sweating
  Protruding eyes

  Metabolic rate decreases
  Retarded growth in Children
Causes goitre

Insulin
  Shortage of glucose in the blood.
  May lead to coma and fatal.

  Diabetes Mellitus

Adrenaline

    High blood pressure.
  High salt concentration in blood.
  Blood sugar level increases.

  Muscles weaken.
  Ability to overcome stress reducing.
  Excessive salt and water in the body (Addison disease).

Testosterone

  Extremely masculine
  Incomplete development of secondary sexual characteristics.
  Immature sperms produced.

Oestrogen
Progesterone
    Extremely feminine.
    Baby born before the complete gestation period.

  Incomplete development of secondary sexual characteristics.
  Irregular menstrual cycle
  Infertility
  Miscarriage